G.K. India - Online Study

Study Notes and Chapters for General Knowledge - Online Preparation for Bank Exams


General Knowledge of current affairs and ancient India is an important section for high scoring in Bnak PO and Clerical Exams for SBI, RBI, RRB and IBPS. In this section we try to cover the ancient Indian History and some ancient Indian General Knowledge likely to be asked in Bank Exams of India for SBI and IBPS. Free study notes and PDF downloads for General Knowledge of India are also available under the links given in this section. Again this is not analyticl study or mathematical appliction, so it becomes very easy to score high i Bnak Exams if GK is strongly prepared.

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Cities Of Prehistoric India

3.  Cities of Prehistoric India - Precursor to Indus Valley civilization


There  are  four  major  cities  which  provided  evidence  for  pre-existing  indigenous settlements  before  the  Mohanjo-Daro  ( Mound  of  the  Dead )  and  the  Harappan ( Hara - is a name for Shiva) civilizations. These cities were: Mehrgarh, Amri, Kalibangan and Lothal. Together they reflected four important sequential phases in the prehistoric era, which gradually resulted in the evolution and  later the demise of the Indus Valley civilization:

1st  phase: transition of nomadic herdsman to settled agriculturists (Mehrgarh)
2nd phase: continued growth to large villages and developing  towns (Amri)

3rd phase:  emergence of great cities (Kalibangan and Lothal)

4th phase: decline (Kalibangan and Lothal)


3.1 Amri


Excavated in the period 1959-1969, Amri provided evidence for four stages of the Indus Valley culture: Pre-Harappan, Early Harappan, Mature Harappan and the Jhangar (Late Harappan)  culture.  Amri s  earliest  strata  dates back  to  4000 BC, but  its  height  of development is in the period  3000  -  2500 BC  (which is coincidental with the time Mehrgarh was abandoned). Several types of ceramics including those produced on potters wheels with decorated geometric patterns were found in Amri.


3.2 Kalibangan


Kalibangan   was   founded   around 2400  BC  near  the  Ghaggar  River. Many  of  the interesting  features seen  in  other  cities,  such  as  brick buildings, ceramics    and    well

developed  sewage  systems,  were also  seen  in  this  city.  Sometime around 2250   BC   this   city   was abandoned due to unknown reason, and was reconstructed 50 to 100 years later, with a design similar to that of Mohanjo-Daro and Harappa. The interesting feature in this new city was the presence of fire-altars, providing the evidence for use of fire for worship before Aryan migration to these regions. The new Kalibangan city existed until 1700 BC after which it was abandoned. The reason is believed to be due to the drying up of the Ghaggar River.


3.3 Lothal


Lothal near Ahmadabad was founded much later than the other three settlements and was  constructed  around            2100 BC.  It  is  believed  to  be  an important    port    for    trade between  the  Indus  civilization and Mesopotamia. It was also used for supplying raw materials for cities in the Indus valley such as  cotton  from  Gujarat  and copper  from  Rajasthan.The decline of Lothal came around 1700 BC and is believed to be Artistic depiction of Lothal, the port-city due to the reduction in demand for these materials, which occurred due to the decline of other great cities in the Indus valley.


Misconceptions that the above cities resolve:


(1) Before Harappa and Mohanjo-Daro were excavated in 1920, the Indo-Aryans were considered to be the creators of the first culture in India. The Vedic Indo-Aryans came to the Indus around 1500BC. But the Indus valley civilization proved to be much older.


(2) Even  after  Harappa  and  Mohanjo-Daro  were  excavated,  they  were  only extensions of the Mesopotamian civilization. However, the excavations of the different strata, which date back to 7000 BC, in Mehrgarh, Kalibangan and Amri showed the gradual indigenous evolution in these settlements which lead to the Indus valley civilization. While there were links with Mesopotamia  (through trade), the belief that the Indus valley civilization was just an extension of the Mesopotamian civilization was not correct.



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