Computer Knowledge - Exam Oriented
1. Frequently used words & their Meaning
Acrobat: This is a special �Reader� that lets you look at many different files on certain programs�it is like an �acrobat� because it is able to �contort� so many different files into a recognizable form!
Baud: This is how many bits a second a modem can send or receive information. It is usually called a �baud rate.�
Bit: This bit stands for Binary digIT. This is the smallest unit of computer data and is based on a binary code, either the number 0 or 1. It is the way your computer reads information.
Bookmark: This is a way for you to mark a site on the Internet that you may want to visit again, just like putting a bookmark where you left off in a story you are reading.
Boot: This is a term that means to �start up,� or �boot up,� your computer, or basically, to �boot it into gear!�
Browser: This is kind of like having your own personal �page finder� on the Internet. This is software that is used to help you �surf,� or navigate, the Internet. It is what allows you to view �pages� on the Web.
Bug: These are little errors in either programs or equipment that sometimes cause them to stop running properly.
Buddy List: This is a list that you have the option of keeping on your Internet Service Provider. It can contain screen names of your friends and family that you like to �talk� with through instant messaging or e-mailing.
Byte: It usually takes 8 or 10 bits to make a byte, so a byte is bigger than a bit!
Cache: A place on your hard drive that keeps words and pictures from Web pages so that when you visit them more than once, they come up quickly.
Chips: These are really tiny electrical �circuit� boards that are capable of storing millions of bits of information.
Cookies: When you access certain Web Pages, you may be asked to enter some information. This information is then kept in a specific place, called �cookies� on the hard disk in the computer. The next time one of these pages is accessed, the computer checks for these cookies on the hard disk.
Cursor: It is a small blinking box or line that appears on the monitor screen. It allows you to see where you are working.
Cyberspace: This is a modern �slang� term used to mean the Internet or World Wide Web.
Database: This is actually information that is stored in a file. Databases are usually used to store information that is similar, for example, names and addresses, club members, etc.
Debug: This is a slang term for fixing problems in computer hardware or software. If you don�t �get� these bugs, they can �eat� or destroy your hard drive or your programs.
Directory: This is like a copy of the �Yellow Pages��instead of listing all of the numbers and places you can call, it lists all of the files you have stored on your computer.
Disk: There are two kinds of disks: hard disks and floppy disks. They are both used to store information. Floppy disks store small amounts of information, usually about 1.4 megabytes. Hard disks can store anywhere from a small amount of megabytes to a large amount of gigabytes.
Disk Drive: This is the �hardware� or equipment that a floppy disk is inserted into. This piece of equipment �drives,� or runs the information stored on the disk.
Domain: This is the name of a network or computer that is linked to the Internet. It is found after the �@� in a URL, or Web address. There are different types of domains, for example, �.com� stands for company, �.gov� is government, �.org� is organization, �.edu� stands for education, and �.in� for India.
DOS: This stands for a very early computer operating system for IBM-Compatible computers. It stands for Disk Operating System. It�s kind of like a foreign language that only your computer understands!
Download: To �download� information from the Internet means to transfer information from a particular site to a file or folder on your computer so that you can �view� the downloaded information at a later time.
E-Mail: This is short for �Electronic Mail.� You can send a letter, memo, short message, business information, or simply a �Hi� with the simple click of a mouse button. This message system works between networked computers and can be sent instantly to a computer in the next room, the next state, or the next country! It�s like two computers talking with each other on the telephone�actually they are talking over telephone lines!
FAQ: This is an abbreviated code used on the Internet to represent: Frequently Asked Questions.
File: This is an area that you put data or information in, like putting information in a �folder� and then into a �file� and putting it all into a �file cabinet� (your hard disk).
Floppy disk: A small, portable storage �container� that stores about 1.4 megabytes of information and can be used to transport information from one computer to another.
Folder: This is another place to store information on your computer and you can even �personalize� a folder with your name on it to hold your special information. In some operating systems, folders are called �directories.�
FTP: This is short for File Transfer Protocol. This is a common way of moving files from one Internet site to another, just like moving the information in files from one file cabinet to another.
Gigabyte: This is one thousand megabytes.
Glitch: Sometimes things suddenly go wrong with computer hardware or software for no apparent reason and your computer �freezes� up. Sometimes you have to �re-boot� your computer system and may lose information you were working on.
Gopher: This is the odd name given to a type of search tool on the Internet that allows you to get text and other information by using different menus. �Gopher� this and �gopher� that!
Groupware: This is special software that enables you to work in groups on documents, programs, or databases. This can only be done when computers are networked.
Hacker: Hackers are computer experts who work at a high level of expertise with computer systems and software. Hackers can be good or bad! Some hackers come up with good ideas this way and share their ideas with others to make computing more efficient. However, some hackers intentionally access personal information about other people with their expertise, and use it to commit computer crimes! They are often caught by �Cybercops� who patrol the Internet looking for �bad� hackers.
Hard Copy: This is a �printed� copy of whatever page you have decided to print from your computer. It is very important that you keep a �hard copy� of any threats or inappropriate e-mail or instant messages that are sent to you, since once your computer is turned off, they are sometimes permanently gone from your computer.
Hard Disk: This is an internal storage �container� where you can store large amounts of information permanently on your computer. It can store large gigabytes of information. Information can be erased from the hard disk.
Hardware: These are the actual �hard� parts or pieces of equipment of your computer that you can actually touch. Hardware can mean the keyboard, monitor, disk drives, chips, and printers�anything that you can touch�and replace if it breaks! These are the �nuts and bolts� of your computer system.
Home Page: This is the �main� page of a Web Site, for a person, company, school, etc. From this page, you can be directed to other pages of interest in that site and can usually return to the home page from other pages in that site. It�s kind of like a �Table of Contents� or �Index� in a book�you can find out where you need to go from this page!
HTML: HTML is short for Hypertext Markup Language and is the way that web browsers read and show text on web pages. For example: blue, italic, bold, etc. It�s a special �browser language.�
HTTP: This stands for Hypertext Transfer Protocol. This is the system that is used to find and send documents on the WWW. This is the first part of all URLs and is at the beginning of every address sent: http://www.laqshya.in
Hyperlink: These are usually blue underlined words or pictures that take you immediately to another site on the Internet when you click on them, like a chain contains links to connect one part to another. It quickly �transports� or �hyperlinks� you to another place on the Web.
Hypertext: This is a word document that is linked to another by a hyperlink.
Icons: A small picture or graphic on your computer that takes you into a program or another screen when you click on it. Icons are kind of like �eye-cons� since they are easily recognizable when you see them. You can place these on your opening screen and easily access the programs you use most often.
Input: Information or data that goes into a computer device. For example, when you learn something by listening to your teacher or parents, you have received input from them.
Instant Message: This is a message that is sent �instantly� and electronically to you by someone who has you on their �buddy list� on the Internet. You have the options to respond to these messages or have them blocked from your computer.
Internet: A huge collection of over 80,000 independent networks combined to form a vast global Internet connecting your computer to computers all over the world. The Internet evolved from the ARPANET of the late 60�s and early 70�s.
Internet Service Provider: This is your connection to the Internet. This is the provider that you pay to get connected to the Internet. There are both national and local Internet Service Providers available to you that allow you to connect to the Internet through your modem and phone line to a local access number.
Java: This is a programming language that allows software developers to create programs called �applets.� When your web browser finds an applet on a page that you have accessed, it runs it if it �understands� the language, or if it doesn�t, it runs the rest of the page as it would look without the applet. For example, if you speak Hindi and you hear Telugu, you might not understand it because it is a different language from the one you know.
Kilobyte: A thousand bytes.
Login: This is the name you use to gain access to your computer system, a program, the Internet, and some pages that require �membership� on the Internet. This is also a term used as a verb to mean to �login� or enter your computer system.
Megabyte: A million bytes.
Memory: The memory in your computer is like your brain � some things you just want or need to know for a short time, some things you want to remember for a long time. Memory is made up of chips and is used to hold information that computers use. Some memory is needed to hold data that your computer needs when it is on, and some memory is used to hold data when your computer is turned off, like saving information on hard disks or floppy disks for later use.
Menu: When you click on a word or icon on your toolbars, a �menu,� or list, of functions drops down. It has different selections for you to choose from, just like the menu at your favorite restaurant. You choose what actions you wish to take in a program or on the Internet from these menu selections.
Merge: Combining two pieces of information together. An Example is: two lanes of traffic �merge� into one lane on the highway!
Modem: This is an internal, or sometimes external, device that connects your phone line to your computer and allows you to connect to the Internet or link to other computers.
Multimedia: Using a computer to combine text, sound, graphics, and video. Examples include: games, and interactive software and some educational software.
Network: Any two or more computers that are connected to share information and resources are networked, or connected, together. When two or more networks are connected together, this is called an Internet.
Offline: If you work offline, you are not connected to another computer through a modem.
Online: When you work online, you are connected to another computer through a modem.
Output: This is the information, or data, given out by a computer. For e.g. When your teacher asks you a question about something you�ve learned, you give an answer, or output.
Password: This is the �secret� name that you use to login to your computer system, the Internet, or programs. Never give this secret word to anyone!
PC: This stands for �Personal Computer� like your computer at home.
Plug-ins: These are special pieces of software, usually downloadable from the Internet, that add new capabilities to a web browser program. For instance, they allow special multimedia features that add sound and movies on some sites that we may choose to access.
Port: Although this sounds like an area where ships dock, a port is actually a socket on the back or front of your computer system that allows you to connect other devices to your computer, such as your mouse, keyboard, printers, and scanners.
Program: Computer programs, usually called software, are really sets of instructions that tell your computer what specific function to perform.
Programming Language: Special codes used to feed instructions into your computer. Just like there are different languages in different countries for different people, there are different programming languages to do different things on your computer or on the Internet.
RAM: Random Access Memory, this is the memory that your computer uses while it is turned on and needs to run the programs that you are using at that time. When you turn your computer off, this memory disappears.
ROM: Read-Only Memory, This is memory that never disappears. This is the memory that stays permanently in your computer and contains the instructions that it needs to run. This is like your permanent memory, your name, your birthday�memory that is permanent, not temporary!
Search Engine: It is a program that looks or �searches� for information for you on the Internet. You type in a word, or group of words, that you want to find information on and the search engine you chose finds all of the �matches� to your request. There are many different search engines and they all �search� in different ways. You may have a favorite that turns up more information for your needs than others. For e.g. Google, Yahoo, MSN search.
Server: It is a computer that �serves� other computers, or clients, on a network. This term can refer to particular software or to the machine on which the software is running. An example is software that manages mail for clients on a network. Sometimes your mail-server will be �down� (not working properly) and no e-mail can be sent.
Shockwave: This is a "plug-in" to the browser that allows you to view interactive Web pages that contain games, movies, advertisements, etc. This browser is free and available to anyone on the Web.
Software: This is a set of instructions that your computer receives to perform a specific function. This software is usually kept on floppy disks or CD/DVD ROMs. They allow you to load the necessary information onto your computer that allows you to use these instructions, called programs, whenever you use your computer. Some software programs require the use of disks when used to access large amounts of data that you may not want to permanently store on your hard disk. You are not allowed to copy and share your software disks because of copyright laws!
Spreadsheets: Worksheets that are mathematical tables showing figures in rows and columns.
SSL: Secure Sockets Layer. This is the technology that encrypts, or encodes, information that is sent from your browser to a Web server. It is a type of �scrambling� system that scrambles information that you send over the Internet. When you send or receive information over a �secure server,� such as credit card information, it is much harder for a hacker to steal�because it is all scrambled up!
Surf: This is a slang term meaning to move from one Internet location to another, simply by clicking on hyperlinks.
URL: This is short for Uniform Resource Locator. This is basically the Internet �address� that you type in to access a particular site on the Web. Just like putting a specific address on a letter to make sure that it gets to a particular destination, each �site� or destination on the Internet also has its own �specific� address! These addresses usually start with �http://� followed by letters and/or numbers for a site.
USENET: This is like a giant �bulletin board� on the Internet that offers a large number of Newsgroups that focus on a variety of topics ranging from news to fan clubs to stock information.
User Name: This is the name that you use to �sign on� with an Internet Service Provider. In addition to your registered �user name� you will also use a password.
Virus: This is a harmful �illegal� computer code that can damage your computer system and makes it seem likes it�s sick! It is silently spread from one computer to another through e-mail, downloaded files, and shared disks.
Web: A short term for the WWW, or World Wide Web. It actually comes from the idea of a spider web because it starts out small, with your computer, and webs out, or spreads out, over the entire world!
Webmaster: A person who creates and maintains a Web site on the Internet. They must update their site to keep it current. Just like a spider builds, repairs and maintains their web, a webmaster builds, updates and maintains their web site!
WWW: This is short for the �World Wide Web� or Internet. It represents the entire network of different resources that can be used by you on the Internet. The World Wide Web allows you access to people, places, things and information, all over the world.