Computer Knowledge - Exam Oriented
1. Computer Languages
a) Machine Language - A Machine Language is a programming language in which the instructions are in a form which allows the Computer to perform them immediately, without any, further translation. Instructions in machine language are in the form of a binary code, also called machine code and are known as machine instructions. Machine instructions are stored in the same way as data and each instruction corresponds directly to a hardware facility on the machine for which it is written.
b) Low level language - Low level languages are machine oriented languages in which each instruction corresponds to or resembles a machine instruction. The (symbolic) low level language must be translated into machine language before use. Each computer manufacturer normally desires a low level language which corresponds closely to the particular machine language used by that manufacturer. This language is called �Assembly Language�. The manufacturer provide a program called as ASSEMBLER which translates the �Assembly Language� into machine code.
c) High level language - The development of high level language was intended to overcome main limitations of low level language. These limitations are (1) Programming is a relatively time-consuming job for the programmer and they. are on �ONE for ONE� basis. (2) Low level languages are machine oriented, each conforming to the instruction set of the machine on which they are to be used. The high level languages have an extensive vocabulary of words, symbols and sentences. The program written in this Language facilitates translation of whole statement into several instructions. This translation is often done by a special program called a �compiler�. As they are problem oriented, the programmer can work to some extent independent of the machine.