Computer Knowledge - Exam Oriented
1. Basic Elements of a Computer system
I. Input - The data (basic facts) and instructions (dictate action to be taken to data) are first recorded on a machine readable medium, like punched card, and then fed into the computer via a device that codes them in a manner which is suited to conversion into electrical pulses before entering memory.
II. Memory - Data and instructions enter the main memory, and are held until needed to be processed. The results of action taken on data are held until they are required for output. Main memory is supplemented by less costly auxiliary or backing memory for bulk storage.
III. Control Unit - It fetches instructions from main memory, interprets them, and issues the necessary signals to the components making up the system. It issues commands for all hardware operations necessary in obeying instructions.
IV. Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) - It does necessary arithmetical operations on the data and ensures that instructions are obeyed. It also performs logical Operations. (The ALU combined with control unit and main memory is called central processing unit).
V. Output - Results are taken from main memory and fed to an output device which displays results in user readable form.